Arabic: ٱلْإِسْلَام, Islam started in 622 is derived from the Arabic root "Salema": peace, purity, submission and obedience. Allah is God and Muhammad his prophet! In the religious sense, Islam means submission to the will of God and obedience to His law. It is an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah), and that Muhammad is a messenger of God.
green: Sunis, purple: Shiites, blue: Ibadi
It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.9 billion followers or 24.4% of the world's population, commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, believed to be the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative examples (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad.
(570 – June 8, 632)
Muhammad's wives, or the wives of Muhammad, were the women married to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Muslims, usually often use the term "Mothers of the Believers". Muhammad was monogamous for 25 years when married to his first wife, Khadija bint Khuwaylid at the age of 25, Muhammad wed his wealthy employer, the 28 or 40-year-old daughter of a merchant, Khadija. Khadijah entrusted a friend named Nafisa to approach Muhammad and ask if he would consider marrying. When Muhammad hesitated because he had no money to support a wife, Nafisa asked if he would consider marriage to a woman who had the means to provide for herself. Muhammad agreed to meet with Khadijah, and after this meeting they consulted their respective uncles. The uncles agreed to the marriage, and Muhammad's uncles accompanied him to make a formal proposal to Khadijah. Khadijah's uncle accepted the proposal, and the marriage took place.
Because now his wife looked after him, Muhammad began to pray alone in a cave named Hira on Mount Jabal al-Nour, near Mecca for several weeks every year. Islamic tradition holds that during one of his visits to that cave, in the year 610 the angel Gabriel appeared to him and commanded Muhammad to recite verses that would be included in the Quran (the holy book of Isalm. There are 114 surahs in the Quran, 86 are classified as Makki, while 28 are Madini. The initial revelation was followed by a three-year pause (a period known as fatra) during which Muhammad felt depressed and further gave himself to prayers and spiritual practices. When the revelations resumed he was reassured and commanded to begin preaching: "God is One", that complete "submission" (islām) to God. 620, Muhammad experienced the Isra and Mi'raj, a miraculous night-long journey said to have occurred with the angel Gabriel. Muhammad is said to have toured heaven and hell, and spoke with earlier prophets, such as Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Many people visited Mecca on business or as pilgrims to the Kaaba.
At age 40 in 610 CE, Muhammad reported revelations that he believed to be from God, conveyed to him through the archangel Gabriel.
Muhammad's companions memorized and recorded the
content of these revelations, known as the
When Muhammad reported his first revelation from the Angel Gabriel (Jibril), Khadijah was the first person to convert to Islam. After his experience in the cave of Hira, Muhammad returned home to Khadijah in a state of terror, pleading for her to cover him with a blanket. After calming down, he described the encounter to Khadijah, who comforted him with the words: "Allah would surely protect him from any danger, and would never allow anyone to revile him as he was a man of peace and reconciliation and always extended the hand of friendship to all."
Muhammad and Khadijah may have had six children. After her death in 619 CE, he over time married a number of women, most of them widows, for reasons of family bonds and to provide for them after his companions had died. All but two of his marriages were contracted after the Hegira (or Hijra - migration to Medina). Of his 13 wives, two bore him children: Khadija and Maria al-Qibtiyya.
Muhammad's father, Abdullah, died almost six months before he was born. Born approximately 570 CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six. Muhammad stayed with his foster-mother, Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb, and her husband until he was two years old. At the age of six, Muhammad lost his biological mother Amina to illness and became an orphan. For the next two years, until he was eight years old, Muhammad was under the guardianship of his paternal grandfather Abdul-Muttalib, of the Banu Hashim clan until his death. In his teens, Muhammad accompanied his uncle on Syrian trading journeys to gain experience in commercial trade. Islamic tradition states that when Muhammad was either nine or twelve while accompanying the Meccans' caravan to Syria, he met a Christian monk or hermit named Bahira who is said to have foreseen Muhammad's career as a prophet of God. It is known that he became a merchant and was involved in trade between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. His reputation attracted a proposal in 595 from Khadijah, a 40-year-old widow. Muhammad consented to the marriage, which by all accounts was a happy one. Several years later Muhammad was involved with a well-known story about setting the Black Stone in place in the wall of the Kaaba in 605 CE.
The Black Stone, a sacred object, was removed during renovations to the Kaaba. The Meccan leaders could not agree which clan should return the Black Stone to its place. They decided to ask the next man who comes through the gate to make that decision; that man was the 35-year-old Muhammad. This event happened five years before the first revelation by Gabriel to him. He asked for a cloth and laid the Black Stone in its center. The clan leaders held the corners of the cloth and together carried the Black Stone to the right spot, then Muhammad laid the stone, satisfying the honour of all.
During this time, Muhammad in Mecca preached to the people, imploring them to abandon polytheism and to worship one God. Although some converted to Islam, the leading Meccan authorities persecuted Muhammad and his followers. This resulted in the Migration to Abyssinia of some Muslims (to the Aksumite Empire). Many early converts to Islam were the poor, foreigners and former slaves like Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi who was black. The Meccan élite felt that Muhammad was destabilising their social order by preaching about one God and about racial equality, and that in the process he gave ideas to the poor and to their slaves.
After 12 years of the persecution of Muslims by the Meccans and the Meccan boycott of the Hashemites, Muhammad's relatives, Muhammad and the Muslims performed the Hijra ("emigration") to the city of Medina (formerly known as Yathrib) in 622. The Arab population of Yathrib were familiar with monotheism and were prepared for the appearance of a prophet because a Jewish community existed there. They also hoped, by the means of Muhammad and the new faith, to gain supremacy over Mecca; the Yathrib were jealous of its importance as the place of pilgrBild. Converts to Islam came from nearly all Arab tribes in Medina. There, with the Medinan converts (Ansar) and the Meccan migrants (Muhajirun), Muhammad in Medina established his political and religious authority. The Constitution of Medina was formulated, instituting a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, Christian and pagan communities of Medina, bringing them within the fold of one community—the Ummah. Since Muhammads teachings were rejected by the Jews and the Christians, he started to pray to Mecca, instead of Jerusalem.
Dome of the Rock 691–92 CE
All the tribes signed the agreement to defend Medina from all external threats and to live in harmony amongst themselves. Within a few years, two battles took place against the Meccan forces: first, the Battle of Badr in 624—a Muslim victory, and then a year later, when the Meccans returned to Medina, the Battle of Uhud, which ended inconclusively.
The Arab tribes in the rest of Arabia then formed a confederation and during the Battle of the Trench (March–April 627) besieged Medina, intent on finishing off Islam. In 628, the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was signed between Mecca and the Muslims and was broken by Mecca two years later. After the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah many more people converted to Islam. At the same time, Meccan trade routes were cut off as Muhammad brought surrounding desert tribes under his control. By 629 Muhammad was victorious in the nearly bloodless conquest of Mecca.
In 632, at the end of the tenth year after migration to Medina, Muhammad completed his first true Islamic pilgrBild, setting precedent for the annual Great PilgrBild, known as Hajj. On the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah Muhammad delivered his Farewell Sermon, at Mount Arafat east of Mecca. In this sermon, Muhammad advised his followers not to follow certain pre-Islamic customs. For instance, he said a white has no superiority over a black, nor a black any superiority over a white except by piety and good action. He abolished old blood feuds and disputes based on the former tribal system and asked for old pledges to be returned as implications of the creation of the new Islamic community. Commenting on the vulnerability of women in his society, Muhammad asked his male followers to "be good to women, for they are powerless captives (awan) in your households. You took them in God's trust, and legitimated your sexual relations with the Word of God, so come to your senses people, and hear my words ..." He told them that they were entitled to discipline their wives but should do so with kindness.
By the time of his death in 632 (at the age of 62) he had united the tribes of Arabia into a single religious polity. He was buried where he died in Aisha's house, Al-Masjid an-Nabawi ("the Prophet's mosque") in Medina, Saudi Arabia, with the Green Dome built over Muhammad's tomb in the center.
One of the sons of Muhammad was Ibrahim ibn Muhammad (Arabic: إِبْرَاهِيم ٱبْن مُحَمَّد) was the son of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Maria al-Qibtiyya.
Muhammad has no decendency. He was sad, that most of his children died.
Muhammad has been described as being very fond of children in general. He comforted a child whose pet nightingale had died. Muhammad played many games with children, joked with them and befriended them. Muhammad also showed love to children of other religions. Once he visited his Jewish neighbor's son when the child was sick.
No age limits have been fixed by Islam for marriage according to Reuben Levy, and "quite young children may be legally married". The girl may not live with the husband however until she is fit for marital sexual relations.
Jihad (English: /dʒɪˈhɑːd/; Arabic: جهاد jihād [dʒɪˈhaːd]) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim. In an Islamic context, it can refer to almost any effort to make personal and social life conform with God's guidance, such as struggle against one's evil inclinations, proselytizing, or efforts toward the moral betterment of the community, though it is most frequently associated with war. In classical Islamic law, the term refers to armed struggle against unbelievers, while modernist Islamic scholars generally equate military jihad with defensive warfare. In Sufi and pious circles, spiritual and moral jihad has been traditionally emphasized under the name of greater jihad. The term has gained additional attention in recent decades through its use by terrorist groups.
Islamic Schools and Branches*
The Sunnis are the greatest faith in Islam. Their faith itself is called Sunniism or Sunnism. The name is derived from the Arabic word Sunna ('Custom, Action, Traditional Norm, Tradition'). Those who follow the sunnat an-nabé, the "Sunna of the Prophet" (sc. Mohammed), are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunna ("People of sunna") and in Turkish as Ehl-i Sünnet, which is usually referred to in German as "Sunnit". In addition to ahl as-sunna, the extended term ahl as-sunna wal-dshama (Arabic: أهل السنة والجماعة, DMG ahl as-sunna wal-'am'a 'People of the Sunna and the Community') is often used in Arabic for the Sunnis, which is the idea of an all-encompassing community.
1. Tawhid (monotheism: belief in the oneness of God)
2. Adl (divine justice: belief in God's justice)
3. Nubuwwah (prophethood)
4. Imamah (succession to Muhammad)
5. Mi'ad (the day of judgment and the resurrection)
The Iranians are Shiites. They are governed by the caliphs / rahbar-e enghel-b / رهبر, "Leader of the Revolution". Supreme Leader or Supreme Religious Leader / Caliph is the highest state office in Iran according to Article 5 of the 1979 Iranian Constitution. He is elected by the Council of Experts for life. Alternatively, the constitutional text includes the names maghām-e rahbarī/ مقام رهبری /, 'Leading Institution', and rahbar-e enghel-b / رهبر انقلاب /‚ 'Leader of the Revolution'. The Shiites adhered to what their caliph / from Islam recognizes: "After the assassination of Uthm'n 656, "Al" was proclaimed the fourth caliph in the mosque of Medina. According to the Shiites view, the legitimate successor of Mohammed finally came to power with him. However, "Al" was not universally recognized."
The Revolutionary Guard (SS) controls politics, the economy and the army – but now the people are fighting back. It uses violence to spread the doctrine of the Iranian revolution. After her mistaken shooting down of a Ukrainian plane that killed 176 people, resistance to it grows. After the Revolutionary Guard mistakenly shot down a Ukrainian passenger jet and concealed the fatal mishap for a few days, public resistance grew. At the center of the criticism is the fanatical regime with its brutal religious army. The Revolutionary Guard already has tens of thousands of lives on its conscience, which the US declared a terrorist organization a year ago.
Iran has two forces: the regular army and the army of the guardians of the Islamic Revolution, or In Persian Pasdaran. As the name suggests, it ensures that the doctrine of the 1979 Islamic Revolution is maintained and disseminated abroad. It is directly subordinate to the head of state and religious leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei (80). The regular army is responsible for the defense of the state.
The economic power
In Iran, there is virtually nothing where the guard does not have its fingers in the game. As a paramilitary institution, she is the country's largest entrepreneur. It controls oil facilities, the Tehran Metro, banks, telecommunications, hospitals, sea and airports. The Guard also monitors access to the Persian Gulf on the Strait of Hormuz. Their relatives do not pay taxes.
It was an idea of revolutionary leader Ruhollah Khomeini (1902-1989). After ending the Western-oriented Shah rule with the Islamic Revolution in 1979 and taking over the function of head of state, he assembled a large number of paramilitary groups into one force. It had its bloody premiere in the First Gulf War (1980-1988).
The force is now about 125,000 strong and divided into army, air force and navy. There are also several subgroups:
1. the Al-Quds Brigades, which are mainly active abroad and whose General Qassem Soleimani (d.62) had Donald Trump killed on 3 January;
2. the Ashura units responsible for suppressing domestic uprisings;
3. and the volunteer militia Basidsch-e Mostazafin, affiliated with the Guard, which already sent tens of thousands of young people to their deaths as suicide bombers and mine-clearers.
Attacks on oil refineries and tankers in the Gulf have shown that Iran has precise weapons. These include drones, but also short-range missiles and cruise missiles that can reach the entire Arabian Peninsula, including Israel. The Guard Air Force consists of partially captured Iraqi jets, but also Pilatus PC-7 (Pilatus Aircraft of Switzerland!) for training purposes.
To export the revolution, the Guards deployed some 2,000 fighters in Lebanon in 1982 to support the Shiite militias in the civil war. Under the name Hezbollah or Islamic Jihad Organization, it conducted operations against the Israeli army and the Christian Phalange militias. Hezbollah is now said to have around 130,000 missiles targeting Israel in Lebanon.
Although smaller than the 350,000-strong army, the Revolutionary Guard is the leading power. Much to the chagrin of President Hassan Rouhani, 71, who is considered moderate and had urged the Guard to confess to mistakenly firing the Ukrainian plane. This tragedy has led to the open outbreak of the power struggle between the Revolutionary Guards and the moderate government and to the Iranian people.*
2. Second Pillar: Salat (Prayer)
3. Third Pillar: Zakat (Almsgiving)
4. Fourth Pillar: Sawm (Fasting)
5. Fifth Pillar: Hajj (PilgrBild)
Beheading of Coptic Christians
In Islam, however, there are still many secessions and sects. "According to Shia understanding, only Alî, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad and later fourth caliph, is the rightful first successor of Muhammad. The head of the municipality is the Imam. An Imam must be a descendant of Alîs." Alevites are once again a secession of the Shia.
The Muslim Brotherhood
(arabisch الإخوان المسلمون al-ichwān al-muslimūn, DMG al-iḫwān al-muslimūn‚ Muslimbrothers‘) is one of the most influential Sunni Islamist movements in the Middle East. It was founded in 1928 by Hasan al-Banna in Egypt.
Since then, the Muslim Brotherhood has spread to other countries, notables for Syria and Jordan. Its two offshoots, Ennahda and Hamas (Algeria), are part of the governments of Tunisia and Algeria and the political process there. In the Gaza Strip, on the other hand, its offshoot Hamas established an Islamist dictatorship after a democratic election, while its Libyan offshoot (the Justice and Building Party) is considered one of the main factions in the Second Libyan Civil War. Sudan's ruling National Congress Party also has its roots in the Muslim Brotherhood. It is considered to be the first revolutionary Islamic movement.
The Muslim Brotherhood is considered a radical Islamist organization in Western countries. After the overthrow in Egypt in 2013 and the subsequent ouster of Mohammed Morsi (8 August 1951 – 17 June 2019), the Muslim Brotherhood was banned in Egypt and classified as a terrorist organization.
Commentators saw the Iranian Ayatollah regime's fear of its claim to opinion in the Umma as the reason. The cosmopolitan interpretation of the Quran by the dervishes, combined with dance and music, made the movement increasingly popular among young people in Iran.
In Pakistan, mystics have increasingly come under the spotlight of fundamentalists close to the Taliban or Al Qaeda. Between 2005 and 2009, there were nine attacks on Sufishrines, which killed a total of 81 people. In 2010, there were five attacks on Sufis shrines, including a suicide attack on Pakistan's largest shrine, the shrine of Data Ganja Bakhsh in central Lahore, in which 45 people died, and two other suicide attacks on the shrine of Abdullah Shah Ghazis in Karachi, in which nine people were killed and 75 injured. The negative attitude towards Sufism in Pakistan is mainly due to the Deobandi and the Ahl-i Hadīth.
On February 16, 2017, an attack on the Lal Shahbaz Qalandar Shrine in Sehwan Sharif killed at least 88 people, including at least 20 children and nine women. More than 340 were seriously injured. The Islamic State claimed responsibility for the attack.
In Wahhabi-dominated Saudi Arabia, the teachings of the Sufis were denigrated as Shiricity (idolatry, polytheism), and the establishments of Sufi fraternities were banned. In particular, the visit of shrines as well as dance and music meet with rejection of the Wahhabi fundamentalists. Decades ago, the Wahhabis consistently destroyed all shrines, even the shrines of companions and relatives of the Prophet, ostensibly to suppress mystical cults.
The Sufis are peaceful Muslims: "The dervishes see jihad alone as a struggle of each individual for his own salvation of souls and not an invitation to war."